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CRYONICS, CRYOPRESERVATION, and CRYOBIOLOGY

Cryonics, or, Medical Time Travel. Kim Swazee has joined the ranks of cryonic pioneers and become one of the few hundred people frozen in suspension only to be thawed out in the far future. Kim found out she had terminal brain cancer in her early 20s and in her 23rd birthday she posted on reddit what should she do with the last few months of her life. They had thousands of comments from running up debt on the credit card, LSD, but also cryonic preservation. Her interest was peaked and soon with the help of some small donations from redditors and big donations from some non profits, she had enough money to cryonically preserve her entire body. Sci fi has long talked about cryosleep, hypersleep, stasis, and that tech does exist to day but it’s less than perfect. The scientific term form this is not cryogenics but cryonics. Gryogenics is studying anything that’s kept really cold, but if you put something living into suspension, that’s cryonics, Kim finally succumbed to her cancer on 2013 and was “de-animated” as the cryonics people call it. And then she was put into preservation. Here’s how it works, first you’re de-animated then your body is cooled rapidly so you get to a very cold temperature without damaging too many tissues, then you’re put into liquid notrogen and left there for a long time. People put themselves in suspension for a variety of reasons, fear of death, love of life, cure for their disease, curiousity about the future, or even wanting to be immortal. The thing is we’ve got no way to re-animate people that have been de-animated. The probleem with the tech at the moment is that our cells are full of water and when you freeze water it expands and creates crystals and that bursts the cell membrane so once we would be thawed out we’d turn into mush. That doesnt really stop people from trying though, the rebuttal is that in the future, the far future whenever it is, they’ll know how to fix it. There’s a seperate process called Vitrification, that’s when you replace the liquid inside your cells with this chemical cocktail that doesn’t freeze and burs thre membranes Its been proven to work ona variety of small bits like cells and organs that are really small, but not a whole anything. Cryonics had been around for a while the rfirst institute started in the 19 sixties, since then only a few others have popped up but are mostly villified for being frauds and sheisters because the tech is unproven and no one has seen anyone successfully reanimated. Becasuse of that most people who work in these non-profit organizations are do-it yourselfers, part timers or just volunteers. So when you think of cryinics, you probably think of slick see-through cannisters with people floating suspended in bubbly fluid, but its not like that at all. Homemade gizmos, freezers and basements. Kim Swazee said you did have to have faith in technology. It’s been the ambition of millionaires to have their heads frozen in liquid nitogen and at some point in the future, when we can cure many diseases like cancer and things, we’ll simply revive them and in that sense attain a certain amount of immortality. But first of all if you suddenly freeze the human body the problem is that ice crystals begin tyo form inside the cells, as the ice crystals expand, they rupture the cells. So in other words, freezing the human body seems to work only superficially, but if you look at human tissue under the microscope you find massive tearing and disruption of cell walls. You may say to yourselves, fish do it right, don’t they get frozen solid in wintertime? Arent frogs able to thaw themselves from spriongtime, yes, but they do it with antifreeze that is glucose. Here’s how it works. You put antifreeze inside your car so everything could be frozen solid, but inside your car, liquids still flow normally so the car still runs. In the same way glucose is antifreeze for frogs and certain fish. Their bodies could still eb in liquid form wioth blood circulating even thought they are frozen solid on the outside. Now this doesn’t mean that at ssome point in the futur we might be able to create natural antifreeze for the human body, but at the present time, the levels of glucose found ing frogs and fish that enable this, would kill a human being. So it would take genetic engineering. So im not saying it’sd impossible, hjsut saying that the organizations that advertize that you can live forever this way, may be misleading the public, because when the body is thawed, you get dead tissue. Another problem is that Cryonics breaks the continuity of consciousness, so many might wonder if a renimated body is still them. Sleep and Anesthesia don’t shut down continuity completely, so that’s fine as the “I”ness isn’t interuprted.. A reanimated individual is no different from Philosopher Donald Davidson’s “Swamp Man”. While the reanimated individual may have the memory and knowledge of the dead indivdual, but, the dead indivudal would not be aware of the reanimated individual’s existence, and would not experince the reanimated individual’s subsequent interactions with the world. There may be tremendous value for others in reanimating already dead people, as the reanimated individuals persnalities and mental states shaped by the dead individual’s past would perceive the illusion of having experienced, could be invaluable in improving the world. Moreover, the reanimated indiovoduals would certainly be happy to be alive and would be as fully human and entitled to the same rights as would have been the dead individuals on whom they were modeled. But while the reanimation of already dead people would be a fascinating breakthrough, it’d do nothing for preserving the “I” ness of those who already died. With opractices like cryonics, where the hope is to reanimate clinically dead poeople by placing their bodies oin biological stasis in the meantime, the issue of whether Iness could be preserve is a bit more challenging to adress.. Cryonics relies on the premise that the current definition of death based on what situations of bodily decay today’s medicine would be able to reverse.

Could you take a dying person, freeze them, and then in the future thaw them, cure them, and then introduce them to the robot butler. Its the promise of cryonics, the process of preserving people at very low temperature so that they can be revived in the future. But no one’s really sure if it’ll ever be possible. Cryonics as we know it began in 1962 when Robert Ettinger suggested in his book “The Prospect of Immortality” that freezing people could preserve them so that Future, more advanced medicine could revive them. Cryonics researchers work under the assumption that a person isn’t truly dead until the information in the brain becomes lost. the idea is that if you preserve the mind, you can preserve the person. The body itself can be fixed in the future once we develop the tec for it. But for cryonics to work, a lot of problems need to be solved. To cure a person who’s been preserved, you’d have to cure the effects of being preserved and then you’d have to cure what killed them. And then you’d have to cure what killed them. And then, you’d have to bring them back to life. The first step, preserving people in a way that doesn’t do too much damage, is the one where we’ve made the most progress, but even it hasnt been perfected. To preserve someone, cryonics experts brign their temperature down to negative 196 degrees celsius in a process called vitrification, from vitreum the latin word for glass. Vitrification is used today to preserve human embryos for people undergoing IVF therapy. And those preserved embryos can be revived and implanted after as long as 12 years. But its a lot easier to presevrve and then revive 8 cells, than an entire human body. For one, the cooling process can take a while, which means more time for cells to degenerate. There are comopanies that have the option to just preserve the brain because its faster process than preserving the whole body. A fiugure that someday medicine will get to the point where brains can be attached to something else or even uploaded to a computer. But just trying to freeze someone forms ice crystals. Which damages blood vessels and dehydrates cells, experts deal with this by replacing trhe blood with chemical cryopreservants. Antifreeze basically. When it freezes, the antifreeze doesn’t crystalize the way plain old blood would, instead it forms a glass like crystal fre solid. Even with cryopreservants though, big things like organs have a habit of fracturing when cooled. Which is bad if you want to use them later. In 2009, researchers from the California Based group “21st century medicine” announced that they’d used similar techniques to preserve and then thaw a rabbit kidney. They put the kidney back into a rabbit where it worked fine for 48 days. At that point the group decideed that the experiment was a success and then euthenized the rabbit so they could study it. The results are promising for the future of organ donations because it would be much easier to find a match if organs and tissues from organ donors could be preserved. The fact that the kidney still works also means we could effectively preserve some organs. But the human brain is much more complicated than a rabit kidney. Even if current techniques are enough to keepo a kidney in working order, they might damage structures in the brain. Anyway, we dont really know how much of a person’s consciousness is stored in their brain structure once they’re dead. But there is evidence that supports the idea that memory sticks around after cryopreservation. In 2015 Nematode worms that were trained to respond to certain smells still responded to these smells after they were cryopreserved and revived. That’s ecnouraging but worms are a lot simpler than people. Then there’s the matter of curing what killed the cryopreserved person in the first place. There are always new treatments being developed though, so it does seem likely that in the future we’ll at least be able to kill at least some of the things that we consider fatal now. But reviving people so they can be cured and then go on living their lives? That’s where cryonics runs into a lot of problems because nobody has any idea how to do it. The brain would definitely be at least somewhat damaged from the cryopreservation process, and the chemicals used in the cryopreservant that replaces the blood are toxic, which means more damage. So how do we fix the damage and get everything runni ng again? Some experts say that nanobots are the answerr, they could go and fix the damage maybe even on the cellular level. But on both a technical and medical sides of things nanobots that could do that are a very long way off. So when it comes to preserving people for the future there are still a lot of unknowns. Cryonics may have worked for captain america, but in the real world there’s still a lot more research that needs to be done before we even know that it’s possible.

Techniques rely on the sucess of a process called vitrification. It means replacing 60% of the water of the body with potentially toxic preservation chemicals including ethylene glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide. When exposed to cryogenic temperatures, below negative 184 farenheit, they react by turning tissue into an ice free zsolid. To bring a patient back to life, science would not only have to reverse this, but also cure whatever killed them in the first place. Fracturing is a highly destructive damaging process that slices through the tinyest cells to entire organs and ebven bones. At the labs of 21st centiury medicine, gregory fayhee and his team have made remarkable headway in overcoming the problem. Fractures uysually occur below – 184 farenheit at a point called the glass transition tempoerature. This is when the chemicals in teh cryoprotectants turn into an ice free solid similar to glass, a process called vitrification. But with cryonics in its infancy, there is little proof that revival scenarios will ever work. But there is one emerging area of science that cryonicists believe may offer hope, a future revolution in Atom sized medicine. Nanotech will definitely have a place in reanimation. We know that things like fracturing and some of the cellular damage will need to be repaired on the cellular level. Each of these futuristic nanorobots are estimated to be only 250 nanometers in length, or 400 times smaller, than the width of a human hait. Ralph Merkel is a key research figure in the world of nanotechnology, he’s also on the ALCOR board of directors and a member himself. We could take the mechanical concepts that we know at our scale, and scale them down so you have gears, pulleys, levers, and bearings, introducing trillions and trillions of molecular machines to repair the trillions and trillions of cells in the body. And this nanomedicine will revolutionize our ability to cure and heal. The fundamental reason we think cryonics will actually work.

The practice of preserving bodies in extremely cold temperatures with the hope of reviving them in the future is called Cryonics, not to be confused with Cryogenics, which is basically just the study of things at very low temperatures. The idea with cryonics is that it would keep a person in suspension until the science of the future has a way to bring them back to life. Theoretically, if their cells were not irreperably damaged, then that person might be able to be recussitated sometimes in the future. So what’s the process cryonicists follow to try and preserva a person? Well after a patient is pronounced legally dead, they stabilize the body and supply the brain with oxygen and blood. The body is then packed in ice and injected with an anti-coagulant to help keep blood from clotting during travel to the cryonics facility. They then try to replace some of the body’s water with a cryoprotectant, which basically acts like a human anti-freeze. This helps to protect the organs and tissues from ice crystals after the body is put to the state of suspended animation due to a process called “Vitrification”. once the water is replaced, the body is further cooled and palced in a container in a large metal tank, filled with liquid nitrogen around -196 degrees celsius, completing the process. Now some scientists believe this process isn’t sufficient enough to actually put a body in cryonic suspension. But assuming a person is successfully preserved, does that mean scientists can bring them back to life? Well, in today’s world, no. But is it possible in the future? Others seem to think so based on a study that showed certain roundworms retained behaviors they’d learned before they were cryopreserved after they were vitrified and revived. Another study showed that Sheep ovaries could be cryopreserved, thawed, and then still work after being transplanted into a sheep even when analyzed 6 years after tghe procedure. Now both of these are obviously not the same as human cryonics, but they provide some hope into what is possible. Not only that, but practically every type of cell has been successfully cryopreserved, a small but significant step to human cryonics. It doesnt seem to be scienftifically sound to conclude one way or another if cryonics of today combined with thew science of the future will lead to bringing a person back to life. it seems more sci fi than reality. But so did invisibility cloaks at one time, and we already showed we’re on the path to making those possible.

Cryonics was once science fiction. In 1931, Sci fi pulp magazine “Amazing Stories” published “the Jameson Satellite” by Neil R. Jones. It told the tale of a professor driven an obsession with preserving his body after death, shot himself into the deep freeze of outer space. 40 million years later, he’s revived by an alien race who’ve achieved immortality by transplanting their brains into mechanical bodies. The story planted a seed in the mind of a young Robert Ettinger in 19 62, obsessed with low temperature preservation of the human body, he self-published the book “the Prospect of Immortality”. Sci fi writer Isaac Asimov put his support behind the book, which lead to international publication and fame for ettinger. In its wake, organizations and companies began to take shape and the cryonics movement was born. In te Arizona desert, alcor life extension foundation has been the leading cryonics organization for years. The cryonics company’s CEO Max More refers to these bodies as “Patients”, because according to them, they are not really dead since they have a chance at being recessitated and revived, no matter how miniscule. I see no reason to accept and arbitrary limit to living, our lifespans are not set in stone. When you’ve done the best you can and there’s nothing more you can do with today’s medical technology, cryonics is a last resort. They can wait decades, or centuries even, until scientists can repair the damage done by aging. They do a conventional surgical procedure called a thoracodomy, where they open up te chest, access the hreat, and use the body’s plubming, the arteries and veins, to remove not only the blood out of the system, but ALL the fluids of the body. They flush in a medical grade antifreeze. Our bodies are 60-70% water, if that goes below freezing temprature it would freeze, crystalize, and that would destroy cells. But there is a question, what would it take to revive these human possibles? No one seems to know exactly, but the possibilities are exciting to think about. We’re making progress already, regeneration of tissues, growing organs, andvanced nanotechnology. We can certainly envision nanoscipic repair devices that can go into cells, and on the drawing board, it doesn’t violate any of the laws of physics, we just cant build them right now. These are treatments using nanorobots and synthetic enzymes that can fix and regeneerate tissues,literally coding and reprinting new D N A to help create healthy cells. Enzyme cuts the plasmid at a specific point, allowing new D NA to be inserted. Reanimating a cryonics patient dosen’t just involve the repair of vitrified tissue, but also the healing of whatever illness or condition cotnributed to the patient’s death in the firs tplace. Tumors, diseased arteries, edementia. Cryonics are counting on curesd for these kinds of illnesses before they revive the patients. Here’s what happens when you freeze a human organ. 80% of human organs are mostly water, so when you bring it to freeze, the ice crystals break the cell membrane. So to prevent ice formation, we add londs of other things into the cells to prevent the molecules from finding each other to form ice. Substances engineered to act at a cellular level to deter formation of ice. Cryoprotectants artent just for scientists, some frogs have proteins that protect them from extreme cold. Antifreeze is used in cars to deice airplane wings. Preserving human tissue, a few cells at a time is possible, but preserving the whole human structure of the whole human body is extremely difficult. You can’t warm up large things, you can thaw out small bundles of cells, but not a whole head. You can only slowly freeze and slowly warm large things, then ice will form inevitably during warming. Not only does the cooling effect wreak havoc on cells, but the warming process also causes stress and fractures asd the tissue undergoes a dynamic shift. Even in small quantities you still get crystal repropogation which kills cells. So this means a mushy brain. In addition, the human body contains over 100 cell types. These different cells all have different biochemistry, each with a different cell structure from one organ to the next. A one-size fits all solution means a croprotectant will be effective across the entire raneg of cell types. This is not considered possible, because the chemicals might protect one cell type and damage everything else. So cryopreserving the cells of just a kidney might work, but preserving a body or a head, cryopreservation becomes exponentially difficult. They say everything will survive that’s not true. They say it’s possible, they just take people’s heads and tfreeze it. The chances that you’ll bring the frozen head back is the same chances that you can take a ground beef patty out of the freezer and make a cow of it. So the chances of getting the head back with intact memory is a ridiculous cause. What if the company goes bankrupt before the proposed technology becomes available?

Cryonics could give people a second chance at life. A landmark british court ruling that a 14 year old girl who died of cancer should have her body cryogenically frozen has once again put te spotligt on the spotlight on a controversial process called “Cryonics”. Crionics is a procedure tat rpeserves te uman bod at low temperatures after deat, in te ope it can be revivied in the future. The process must begin within 2 minutes of a person being declared legally dead. Although the heart has stopped beating, there’s still some brain function during this period. So a heart-lung recesitator is used to stabilize the body and keep the brain supplied with blood and oxygen. In te next step of the process, an anti-coagulant is injected into the body to stop the blood clotting during transit. The body is then packed in ice and transported to a cryonics facility in scottsdale arizona. Once there, a process called “Vitrification” begins, where the blood is replaced with a cryoprotectant antifreeze fluid. This is done to prevent the cells from freezing and to stop ice crystals from forming around the organs at extremely low temperatures. The body is then placed on a bed of dry ice until it cools to minus 130 degrees celsius. Once cooled sufficiently, the body is trasdferred to an individual container, whioch is in turn lowered into a larger metal tank, which is filled with liquid nitrogen to keep the temperature at minus 196 degrees temperature. Between 4 and 6 bodies are typically stored in the tanks, they are held with heads facing down to ensure the brains will sta immersed in the freezing liquid, even if there is a leak in the container. Britain’s high court ruled last year that a 14 year old girl had the right to be cryogenically frozen after her parents disagreed about whether she should undergo the process. Before she died, the girl wrote to the court saying she wanted the chance to live againb, even if it took 200 years for scientists to wake her up. Around 250 people have been cryogenically frozen since the 19 sixties. Including several noteable scientists and the baseball legend ted williams. However, the technology to revivie someone who’s been cryogenically frozen does not exist, and there’s no proof that it ever will.

Max More, Evan Cooper, Mike Darwin, (Simon Cowell, Seth Macfarlane, and Britney Spears already signed up, but walt disney was never suspended), the movie passengers,  Arguments against cryonics https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/Arguments_against_cryonics

There are other options for resurrection. Cryonics is the preservation of human bodies in extremely cold temperatures. Below -2378 degrees. You can get cryopreserved for the low price of 200,000$, if that’s a little rich, just the head for 80,000$ in the hopes that science would be able to revive you.

CRYOBIOLOGY: The study of the effect of low temperatures (below the freezing point of water) on biological systems. A primary goal of this field is the preservation and long term storage of organ systems such as hearts, kidneys, etc. for use in transplantation. This goal has not yet been reached and currently only individual cells and organisms consisting of only a very few cells (such as embryos) can be successfully treated, stored, and revived.

But what does this mean for us mere mortals who will never live to see the day when immortality is within reach? There is one chilling possibility that will give us all a chance to hang on, even after we die. We’re all genetically programmed to lust for life, and to flee from death. Eventually we will discover the secret of immortality, but we’re not there yet. To cheat death right now, we need to put aging on ice so . that we still have a chance at grasping eternal life long after life abandons us. At biotech outfit 21st century medicine is to freeze human organs and tissues so they can be revived undamaged centuries from now undamaged. Cryopreservation is the preservation of living systems at very low temperatures, temperatures low enough that you can store the system as long as you want before you use it agaon, Greg Phayhee is a cryobiologist trying to preserve whole organs, but it’s a lot harder than putting food in the freezer. When biological material freezes, ice crystals form, which puts the cells out of their normal positions. When you thaw the organ, it might look ok from the outside, but the inside is damaged beyind repair. The biggest problem is mechanical, the formation of ice between cells. If cells are dislodged from their normal locations, then you destroy the function of the structure as a whole even if the cells survive. They focus their efforts on preventing bodily fluid from freezing and eventually instead turning them into a form of biological glass, a technique called vitrification, the formation of a glass, if you take water and mix it with various chemicals and then cool it to low temperatures the system will never freeze no matter how low you go, because it’s a glass. To test this, Greg’s team vitrified a rabbit kidney, we deliver cryoprotectants throught he vascular system of the kidney so it becomes unfreezable. The chambers are temperature conditions to minimize toxicity. It can then be taken out and transplanted, still working just as well as a normal kidney, even after being frozen after low temperatures. This is proof that vitrification works and might just be able to be used to recessitate frozen human bodies into the distant future. Calculations indicate you can store a system for thousands of years. Imagine being able to ut your body on ice and being revived 10,000 years from now, you could wake up to an age where science has made immortality possible. but that can only happen if cryopreservation works on the entire human body. Also the most complex organ of all, the brain. one day. Centuries after we say goodbye to our oved ones, our frozen bodies could be reanimated and we’ll walk the earth again.

man’s quest to cheat the grim reaper gave rise in the 1960s to a controversial idea that shocked the world. What if humans could be frozen, stored for decades, and then thawed out back to life. It’s a procedure known as “Cryonics”. The idea of cryonics is to keep people in that state so that they are legally dead but not biologically dead until we have sophiosticated enough technology to revive them from a cryopreserved state, and also fix whatever it was that they legally died of. 1966 Glendale california, 73yo James Bedford, a retired psychology professor, he answers an add put out by a newly formed grup, the cryonics society of Calidornia. They offered free freezing to the first person who agrees to undergo a little procedure called cryonic suspension. It resembles an emergendcy medical procedure where the blood washed out of the body and replaced with a olution. that protects the body against the extreme cold that we use in cryonics. But the real premise behind it is that once someone is preserved in liquid nitrogen, they can stay there for virtually thousands of years with no change in their condition. On Jan 12 1967, James Bedford is to become a pioneer ina bold experiment to live forever, as he nears his final moments, his physictian has enourmous vats filled with eyes. As he cleses his eyes and takes his final breath, they pack bedford’s body in ice. They drain all of bedford’s blood, replae it with antifreeze solutions and spend 8 hours freezing him solid in ice. He’s then flown to Phoenix and placed ina. liquid nitrogen storage capsul. The first person to be preserved. Bedford remains frozen immortality in the ALCOR life extension foundation, the largest cryonics facility in the world. 84 other patients along with bedford are housed in capsuls, literally frozen in time, they are not yet aging, but they are not yet ready to be thawed. We still can’t revive the people preserved today because we need cures for the things killing people, heart disease, old age, cancer, al need to be cured before we can wake these people up,. A patient is cryopreserved by a process called vitrification, which protects their bodies from decpmposition and cell damaging ice crystals. This is accomplished by pumping liquid notriogen, which keep their bodies at a constant 196 degrees below zero. in a way these are time capsuls, we are transpoorting someone who is incurable today to some future unknown point where medicine can treat them and cure what ailes them. It’s kind of a great last ditch insurance policiy, it s a way to say that if all else fails, you’re trusting that future technology will be able to fix whatever is wrong with you. Even your being dead. Maybe they are looking to that day where eternal life should be every person’s right. Will the frozen dead be ressurected and walking among us again to live forwever?We can’t revive the cryoprseserved with current technology, sbut i think we’re getting close so i pay a modest life insurance premium of a few dozen dollars every month to cryopreserve me if i become legally dead in the near future.

Cryonics is where we freeze the body in liquid nitrogen with a cocktail of cryoprotectants like ethylene glycol. We do this because freezing suspends its animation and we’re able to maintain our physicality and physiology for as long as we can. In 2013 a 23 year old woman named kim swozee was dying of brain cancer. if you’re a redditor you probably know who she is. She went to reddit and asked for help because she couldnt afford cronic suspension. She wanted to cryonicly freeze herself because she figured in the future they might be able to fix her terminal brain cancer. Most people come to cryonics institutes like ALCOR, which is where kim swozee went for a number of sdifferent reasons. Fear of death, love of life, tcuriosity about the future, or having a terminal disease. Imagine if you could wake up in the year 3000. But they also maybe just maybe want to live forever, a goal for some people. With cryonics you can de-animate people, they call it de-animation, what they do is replace your blood with a cold saline solution that cools your body temperature down, metabolic processes slow, and then they put you into liquid nitrogen. This works by anerobic glycolysis, which means when your cells can’t get oxygen externally they burn internal energy. You get 120 seconds tops of anerobic glycolysis, but when you’re froze that process has started but not finished, maybe you could get years, decades if we get really good. The problem with cryi=onics is that we can freeze people, but we can’t reanimate the,. But Kim Swozee said we have to trust in technology. Maybe we’ll see her again someday. As long as we’re trusting technology, why not forgoe the whole cryonics thing altogether.

bejamin franklin wrote to a friend in 1773. I wish it were possible to invent a method of embalming drownded persons in such a manner that they mght be recalled to a life at any period, however distant, for having a vert ardent desire to see and observe the state of America a hundred years hence. Today cryonics is the process of opreserving humans after death by storing them in liquid niorogen typically at 196 degrees celsius. In this cold storage state, metabolism and decay are nearly completely halted. Viruses, bacteria, sperm, eggs, insects, and even small animals like rana sylvania and some fish can all be cryogenically frozen, preserved for an indefinite time and then reanimated back to healthy life. Barrring social disruption, cryonicists believe that a preserved person can remain physically viable for at least 30,000 years, at least long enough for advanced medical technology to revive them. We don’t know what its gonna be that allows us to reanimate and restore health and youth, if anything but its a lot better odds to be frozen than to let the worms eat you. Its a very logical if you want to put it that way. The afterlife is a gamble to, it might not be there. Biut I feel the odds are good of a very good future coming out of this. If we look at history progress seems to get better overtime. The best part is that it’s the most effective, there’s notdeadline for the development of nanotech, if it takes an extra decade or 20 years to develop the tech to restore someone to good health, then it’s not a problem. It’s a big gamble, but at the rate the tech is defveloping, however bad your predicament might be, a century from now or a millenia from now, there might be a very good chance you might be brought back. There is nothing in cryionics that violates the laws of physics, there is absolutly no reason a body can’t be revived. It would take extraordinary manipulation of matter and biology, but the laws of physics do not strictly prohibit the revival.

Cryonics began in 1962 woth the publication of “the prospect of immortality” by robert ettinger, founder and the first president of the cryonics institute in michigan. It was founded in 1976 and for many years it moved very slowly. The first patient was his mother, the second, his wife. Now thay have almost a hundred, which doubled in the recent years due to the media taking notice. It’s still very small compared to the population of the entire world, but almost every day advances in medical technology make their position more credible and more people begin to embrace it. The process used to be expensive and only for the rich, but it is now easy to purchase it through insurance plans starting at 30 dollars a month. Today scientists at 21st century medicine are working on an advanced method of cryonics, a less destrcuctive method called vitrification, which will better preserve organs from freezing damage, which will help revival come even sooner.

one of the problems with conventional freezing methods is that ice crystals form and then irreversibly damage organs. We are preventing ice from forming no matter how cold you go in temperature. In principle you could go to absolute zero and never form an ice crystal. What happens instead is the system becomes a “solid liquid” in a sense, the liquid becomes slower and slower as you go to lower temperatures until it eventually stops moving altogether , at that point it becomes a glass no longer a liquid. That process is called vitrification for glass formation. There’s nothing about the arrest of molecular motion that’s harmful for living systems.

But if all else fails, you can always freeze your body after you die and hope that sometime after the future, scientists will be able to revive your frozen cadaver and bring you back to life. This is called Cryonics and you may have only seen it in films, but it’s actually real science. The process involves refridgeration the body in liquid nitrogen and replacing the blood with a cryoprotectant fluid to prevent ice crystals from forming inside the body and damaging the cells. The body is then suspended in giant steel containers and the temperature is then lowered to -196˚centigrade. There are currently 250 bodies preserved in this way, waiting for science to revive them and more than a thousand living people have signed up for the procedure. But it costs around 2000,000 for a full body presentation, or you can just get the head preserved for 80,000 in the hope that one day science will be advance enough to connect your head to another body and bring it back to life with all your memories preserved.

This would be better to be frozen then cremated or buried, in whuch case you’d have zero chance

WILL WE EVER BRING THE CRYOPRESERVED BACK TO LIFE?

A teenager who tragically died of cancer recently has become the latest among a tiny but growing number of people to be cryogenically frozen after death. These individuals were hoping that advances in science will one day allow them to be woken up and cured of the conditions that killed them. But how likely is it that such a day will ever come?

Nature has shown us that it is possible to cryopreserve animals like reptiles, amphibians, worms and insects. Nematode worms trained to recognise certain smells retain this memory after being frozen. The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) freezes during winter into a block of ice and hops around the following spring. However, in human tissue each freeze-thaw process causes significant damage. Understanding and minimising this damage is one of the aims of cryobiology.

At the cellular level, these damages are still poorly understood, but can be controlled. Each innovation in the field relies on two aspects: improving preservation during freezing and advancing recovery after thawing. During freezing, damage can be avoided by carefully modulating temperatures and by relying on various types of cryoprotectants. One of the main objectives is to inhibit ice formation which can destroy cells and tissues by displacing and rupturing them. For that reason, a smooth transition to a “glassy stage” (vitrification) by rapid cooling, rather than “freezing”, is the aim.

For this, simple substances such as sugars and starches have been used to change viscosity and protect cell membranes. Chemicals like dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol, glycerol and propandiol are used to prevent intracellular ice formation and anti-freeze proteins inhibit ice crystal growth and re-crystallisation during thawing.

But it’s not just the individual cells we have to worry about. In a frozen state, tissues are generally biologically stable. Biochemical reactions, including degeneration, are slowed at ultra-low temperatures to a point where they are effectively halted. Nonetheless, there is a risk that frozen structures can experience physical disruption, such as hairline cracks. Then, upon thawing, temperature fluctuation causes a series of problems. Tissues and cells can be damaged at this state. But it also has an effect on our overall “epigenetics” – how environmental factors and lifestyle choices influence our genes – by causing epigenetic reprogramming. However, antioxidants and other substances can help aid post-thaw recovery and prevent damage.

Reviving whole bodies also poses its own challenges as organs need to commence function homogeneously. The challenges of restoring the flow of blood to organs and tissues are already well-known in emergency medicine. But it is perhaps encouraging that cooling itself does not only have negative effects – it can actually mitigate trauma. In fact, drowning victims who have been revived seem to have been protected by the cold water – something that has led to longstanding research into using low-temperature approaches during surgery.

The pacemakers of scientific innovation in cryobiology are both medical and economic. Many advances in cell preservation are driven by the infertility sector and an emerging regenerative medicine sector. Cryopreserved and vitrified cells and simple tissues (eggs, sperm, bone marrow, stem cells, cornea, skin) are already regularly thawed and transplanted.

Work has also started on cryopreservation of “simple” body parts such as fingers and legs. Some complex organs (kidney, liver, intestines) have been cryopreserved, thawed, and successfully re-transplanted into an animal. While transplantation of human organs currently relies on chilled, not frozen, organs, there is a strengthening case for developing cryopreservation of whole organs for therapeutic purposes.

The biggest hurdles

Cryopreservation of whole brains is a niche interest at best. Experiments with frozen whole animal brains have not been reported since the 1970s. While factors like a good blood supply and high tolerance to mechanical distortion may facilitate brain freezing, particular technical and scientific challenges exist, especially where the goal is to preserve regulatory function and memory. Without huge breakthroughs in such research, it is likely to remain the one factor holding back therapeutic applications of whole-body cryopreservation.

But there’s another huge hurdle for cryonics: to not only repair the damage incurred due to the freezing process but also to reverse the damage that led to death – and in such a manner that the individual resumes conscious existence.

From a purely technical point of view, this added complication might be worth avoiding. For example, someone who suffers from dementia will have already lost his or her memory by the time they die and will therefore no longer be the same if woken up after being cryogenically frozen. Faced with this, patients with neuro-degenerative disorders who do not wish to live with the condition any longer may therefore seek to be frozen before death, in the hope that they will retain some memory if revived in the distant future. This clearly raises both legal and ethical questions.

So will it one day be possible to cryopreserve a human brain in such a manner that it can be revived intact? As explained, success will depend on the quality of the cryopreservation as well as the quality of the revival technology. Where the former is flawed, as it would be with current technologies, the demands on the latter increase.

This has led to the suggestion that effective repair must inevitably rely on highly advanced nanotechnology – a field once considered science fiction. The idea is that tiny, artificial molecular machines could one day repair all sorts of damage to our cells and tissues caused by cryonics extremely quickly, making revival possible. Given the rapid advances in this field, it may seem hasty to dismiss the entire scientific aim behind cryonics.

The ConversationAlexandra Stolzing, Senior Lecturer of Regenerative Medicine, Loughborough University

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

NEW FORM OF CRYOPRESERVATION ALLOWS US TO FREEZE WHOLE ORGANS

IN BRIEF

Using a mathematical model, researchers develop a new approach in cryopreservation, allowing them to increase healthy cell survival following vitrification from 10% with a conventional approach, to more than 80% with the new one.

CRYOPRESERVATION

In the life sciences, cryopreservation is the use of sub-zero temperatures to preserve structurally intact living cells. This includes tissues, cell cultures, blood, and semen.

At these extremely low temperatures, any enzymatic or chemical activity that might cause damage to the material in question is effectively stopped. Unfortunately, the method may also damage or destroy the samples, as the crystallization that occurs when water freezes may bring on harmful mechanical action.

To break that down a bit, when material freezes, ice crystals often form within it. These ice crystals can crush nearby cells, killing them or significantly damaging them. Indeed, they quite often do just this, which causes a number of problems for researchers who are working on cryopreservation.

Substances called cryoprotectants, such as ethylene glycol, are used to prevent this. However, there is a slight issue with cryoprotectants. Namely, they can be toxic. As such, they may damage or kill the very cells they are trying to protect, which is (of course) counterproductive.

But we may have a new way forward.

A NEW APPROACH

At Oregon State University, researcher just developed a mathematical model to simulate the freezing process in the presence of cryoprotectants, and they identified a way to minimize damage.

If cells are initially exposed to a low concentration of cryoprotectant, and time is allowed for the cells to swell, then the sample can be vitrified after rapidly adding a high concentration of cryoprotectants (water that becomes solid without freezing is said to be “vitrified”).

This results in less toxicity, with healthy cell survival following vitrification rising from about 10% (with a conventional approach) to more than 80% with the new one. The researchers go on to claim that the model should also help in identifying less toxic cryoprotectants.

Progress like this may allow cryopreservation of more complex tissues, and perhaps even whole organs. Tissues could be made in small amounts and then stored until needed for transplantation. Organs being used for transplants could be routinely preserved until a precise immunological match is found for their use. It could bring on a new era in organ donation.

 

(MY ORIGINAL PARAGRAPH) We are continuously improving the cocktail of stem cells, growth factors, cytokines, and cryoprotectants that we use for restoring frozen organs. Many pharmaceutical companies are screening compounds that make the most efficient cryoprotectants with no freezing damage so that we can even restore the activity of frozen brain tissue samples. We have already preserved the memories of nematode worms and can restore behavior reflexes after thawing them. Soon we will move to increasingly complex organisms like mice, or frogs, many of which already practice Cryonics themselves. The holy grail would be to attain reversible cryopreservation in animals like chimps, thawing them out using nanobots that would treat brain damage as we are brought out of low temperatures. But we might not even need to bring the bodies back, as we are also improving our 3D and layer by later brain scanning technologies to extract information from a frozen human brain. But this would require understanding the concept of consciousness, determining the brain sections resposible for memories, and the processes underlying them. It would mean identifying the connection between the electrochemical and biochemical mechanisms of a person’s thought processes so that we could restore memories using biological data about brain activity. We could hopefully then move onto restoring more complex mental processes like personality, recording brain scans on simulated neural networks. But this is a form of mind uploading, and is many decades away. If not more than a century. (MY ORIGINAL PARAGRAPH)

 

https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/Category:Cryonics

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