The transporter from star trek, you walk in get dissaassembled, and reassembled at the other end after literally dying. If we took away the bit where you reassembled, it would just be ascene of people walking to their deaths. You break someone down molecule by molecule and vaporize them so they’re dead, but you make a copy at the end so apparently its not killing. And obviously the copy doesnt “feel” like a copy so there’s no one left to protest. But what would it take to build a teleportation. It takes a long time to travel to a distance solar system. Theleportation involves scanning something at a subatomic level and sending te data gathered from the scan to some distant location where a perfect copy is reconstructed. When I say copy, I mean Copy. Since 1993 when quantum teleportation was first deemed a “theoretical possibility”, we’ve understood that the act of scanning an object fully destroys that object. The point that the copy created is the only thing that remains. So your original body is obliderated. Now maybe the thought of having your body as you know it obliderated in the name of an immediate commute disturbs me to. But the question of how many sub atomic particles need to be originals for me to be who i am isnt the point here, although it is fascinating. In 1998, researchers sent a single photon successfully approx 1 meter along a coaxial cable, and just as everyone theorized, the moment the photomn appeared at its destination, the original ceased to exist. It didnt travel, it was copied, destroyed, and cloned. in order for quantum teleportation to be possible scientists had to find their way around something called “the heisenberg uncertainty principle”. Its the idea that you can never know both the location and momentum of a poarticle. The more we nail down data on one of these things, like the location, the less we end up knowing about the other, its momentum, and vice versa. The scientists who teleportedn this photon succeededc by usi ng a phenomenon called “entanglement”, thats the principle which allows 2 particles to stay connected to each other even over great distances, so that what happens to one, directly affects the other. So one photon in a lab could be spun and its entangled photon hundreds of miles away would also start to spin. Even Einstein referred to this phenomenon as “spooky action at a distance”. To teleport a single photon they actually needed 3, one, the original to be teleported. 2, a photon used to trandsport the information from the first. And 3 a photon entagled with photon 2, upon which the information was written. See, if the researchers had tried to get up close and personal with photon one to read it’s information, they would have altered it, thus making it impossible to teleport in its actual state. That’s because subatomic particles exist simultaneously in all states until they are obsrved. To interact woith the particle directly would require them to observe it. Observing a particle locks it into one state, which wouldn’t be reprersentative of the actual particle. With photon 2 acting as a sort of buffer, they can copy the info onto photon 3 over a distance, thus successfully teleporting photon 1. You can see why we’ve got a lot of work to do before teleporting humans is feesible. Did you know there’s a ton of atoms in the human body. But do you know how many? There are 7 billion billion billion of them. Because when we start talking about numbers that big, even scientists startt to sound like kindergardeners. In the real world keeping track of 7 billion billion billion atoms, copying them, moving them over vast distances, it’s just not feesible. Some even argue that quantum teleportation and the sort you see in star trek, shouldnt even be considered the same thing. In te latter, you’re deconstructing and transporting matter over distances and reassembling it perfectly. In the former you’re merely copying the state of one quantum particle to another. Maybe we’ll get there some day. Quantum teleportation to space has recently been done successfully, but it is quantum, which means we didn’t teleport a thing per say, but just some data. This year, Chinese scientists beamed photosfrom the ground to a satellite orbiting above the Earth then messed with them using quantum entanglement. Quantum entanglement happens when you have 2 particles, usually photons, that are created together, they’re like twins. And their twinning can strech across space and time. Because they were entangled, when scientists observed the spin of the Earth photons, they could also know the spin of the photons in space too. They spin in the exact same way even though there’s no physical connection between te too. They’re just mimicking each other. How? No one knows, it’s spooky action. They’re like telepathic twins in different cities. In this case the chinese satellite was capable of sensing the quantum state of the photons so they could prve that the photons were entangled, even across a vast distance, hundreds of miles. So think about this, right now, if I want to send a message, i have tio secur it with encryption, but if we could make entangled pghones say, when my quantum particle moved, yours would move, if we could take advantage of that, we could communicate without an perceivable physical interaction. But we’re not they’re yet. Quantum states are detectable, but by the laws of quantum mechanics, once we observa a particle, it changes. The nice thing is entanglement means we only have to observe one of the particles to sense the state of the others. But its not 2 way data transfer, not yet. We teleported information to space, which is a huge accomplishment, but the practicality of it is still up in the air. Quantum nmechanics is still bound by the same laws of the universe in some ways, so we couldnt use the particles for say faster than light communication. But we could use them like decoder rings. Ex: if a spy has one of a twin set of particles and the contact has the other. Alongside each could be acoded message. If they meet, observe their particles and the spins match, they know no one had tampered with their messages, it’s the ultimate security. Companies are already working on quantum entanglement as a security protocol for the future internet. It could lead to moving data without wires or wiresless frequencies, and because anyone who somehow observed the entangledd phiotons would alter them so secutrity would be incredible. The problem is quantum mechanics is not very well understood. This would be like trying to create a whole new type of computer without fully understanding computer chips, or like building an airplane without understanding air molecules. Still some dutch researchers plan to start the first rudimentary quantum computer network very soon and they’re not alone. It’s a huge engineering challenge, but its notimpossible, but it is really hard. Success would most definitelly change the world. A quantum internet could change our banking system, security would be way better. A concern about quantum teleportation: When a transporter dismantles the atoms in your body and reassembles an identical arrangement of atoms somewhere else, perhaps the disassembled you actually dies, and the reassembled you is actually a new being that just thinks its you, and if they hadn’t simply dismanteled the original, then there’d now be 2 you’s in the universe and which is really you. You or the teleported you? The original creators were anware of quantum teleportation because it was discovered in the 1990s. Quantum teleportation is the only type of real teleportation tech we currently have access too, and the point is you could take some particles in a particular arrangement and transfer their exact quantum condition onto other particles far away. It kind of seems like sad teleprotation because the particles don’t move, just theior state. But isn’t that essentially what a star trek teleporter does but on a larger scale? Sending enough iunformation and energy to the new location to create te exact arrangement or state of particles that corresponds to you? And quantum teleportation has one pivotal property, it is impossible to create an identical copy of a quantum state withoutdestroying the original. In fact, you HAVE to destroy the original information in order to extract all the necessary information from it to con struct the new teleported state. The relevant theorem in quantum mechanics is called “the no cloning theorem”. We don’t yet know how brains work to create consciousness. But if the quantum states of the some electrons somewhere in the brain are critical to perfectly determining and thus copying you, then a teleporter would necessarily have to obey the rules of quantum teleportation when sending information about the arrangement of particles that ware you to the new location. So whatever was left behind would definitevely not be “you”. Even the then, complexity of this task and the energy needed would be astronomical. The idea is to telecomminucation and transportation, to transllate a physical thing to data, stream it to somewhere else, and then reassemble it. But phsycists at CalTech accomplished their first teleported object back in 1998, and in comparison to star trek their accomplishment is limited, they teleported a single photon about 1 meter. Since then they’ve been able to teleport a hundred miles, but they’ve only been working with photons. There’s this thing in physics called the heisenberg uncertainty pricniple that says you can know how fast somethings moving OR its location but not both, its the barrier for teleporting larger things. These researchers got around the prcincple using something called “quantum entanglement”. Pretty much to get photons to entangle or interact and then share their traits. By using 3 photons scientists can teleport one of them to a new place. Theoretically because we can trasport 1 photon, we should also be able to do more things. But a person has a lot more info than a single photon. There are 10^28 atoms in the human body, that’s 28 zeros. And each of those would have to be entangled, read, digitized, teleported, and then the process would have to be reversed. Long story short, this would take forever. According to students at the university of Lester, usiong current tech the amount of data contained in the whole human, including the physical body plus the memories is 3.02×10^32 gigabytes of ionformation. Using a high bandwidth transfer that data would take 4.5×10^18 quadrillion years to teleport. One time. That is 350,000 times the age of the universe. And if that’s not a big enough issue, there’s another problem. The exact thing that arrives is not the same thing that left. It’s been reconstructed. When scientists entangle and teleport that photon, they’re actually destroying it to read all its information so its gone until you reconstruct it a hundred miles away. With regard to a person, you’d sort of have to die, but you’d be alive again when you reconstructed you, but you’d be dead in the middle. As of now teleportation tech will remain in the digital world. Scientists are learning to teleport data distances great enough to create a computer that can teleport data instantly, making it much faster than current technologies. Scientists in denmark managed to teleport the quantum state of something larger than a photon, a Cesium atom, making yet another small step toward this type of computing. The Transporter is a suicide box.
In the future we are gonna be able to do things that are in science ficition. Telephay, Reading Minds, Telekinesis, moiving objects with the mind, recording memories, uploading memories like in the matrix, and even photographing dreams like in the movide inception. In fact, we can do all of the above already on a primitive level. We can photogropah dreams now, we can photograph thoughts inside the mind. We can transfer these thoughts from brain to brain. These are things done in the laboratory today. For example. recording a memory, in mice you can record the impulses across the hippocampus, which is the gateway to memory of the brain, insert it back into the mouses brain after ift forgot that memory, and it remembers! We can record memories now, and so the future of the internet will be Brain Net, that is we’ll send emotions and feelings across the internet, that’s the future of the movies, instead of looking at a flat screen with sound, we’ll have full immersion entertainment, we’ll feel we’ll have the memories, we’ll have the sensations so the emotions of the actors and actresses in a film. And I also think that’s the future of the human race. When we get into science fiction, everything up to now we can do in the lab, but in science fiction, realize that once we have the connectome we could put that on a laser beam and shoot that beam into outer space at the speed of light. To go to the moon would require one second to go to the moon. By firing the connectome to the moon, where there’s the relay station that downloads the connectome into the moon, where there’s a relay station that then downloads a connectome into an avatar, and there you are as a super human robot walking on the surface of the moon with all the memories and sensations of a humna. This is the safesty, most economical, and most efficient way to explore the galaxy at the speed of light. Light beams encoding the connectome of our consciousness, exploring the universe, and who knows? Maybe aliuens in outer space have already done this. We are maybe only 100 200 years away from this capability of creating a netwerk of consciousness throughout the galaxy. What are local sector and then out the the enitre galaxy, amybe aliens have already done, already explored the universe at the speed of light. Forget spaceships, and foprget the white house lawn, light beams, that could be the way to explore the universe. And that fascinating if we can free ride on those relay stations that the aliens have hopefully already established, but if there were no such relay stations how do we establishthem, if a star is 5000 relays away, we need the relay station to reproduce the signal and upload you to the avatar. So how do we create those in the first place. The easiest way is that the first generation actually has to physically go to alpha centuri, set up a relay station. However, there is a way thats more specualtive, if light can be slowed down like we do in the laboratory, that means a light beam might be able to go to a distant star slow down, and then materialize on a moon, and then use the materials of the moon to create a machine that can then dowload other light beams into the future. That of course is pushing the limits of optics, but we can slow down light beams, in which case we might be able to materialize on a planet without needing a relay station at all. Why not be able to master aspects of lets say mathematics that I don’t have time for, there are whole branches of science that cannot be assimilated by one person. So why not have a databank, just kike we have CDs of different kinds of music, why not have adatabank of memories, why not have a library oif souls? So when you go the library instead of taking textbook out, why don’t you take out the CD of your ancestors. Why not have a conversation of Winston Churchill or Albert Einstein, because their thoughts, memories are encoded on a disk that you can simply pick up from a library. This could be possible. One day you’ll be able to chat with your ancestors. So you’re not only open to enhancing your own brain as in the physical substance, but you’re also open to uploading your consciousness to a computer. Why not? And again, I don’t think this’ll be possible for many decades to come, perhaps later this century we’ll have a very good connectome, but at the present time we can barely get the connectome of a mouse, let alone a human being.
At the present time we are only able to teleport photons, particles of light and atoms like Cesium and Rubidium. That’s iot for the present time, but in the coming years we do expect to be able to teleport molecules, maybe water, carbon dioxide. After that who knows, maybe even DNA, maybe organic molecules. But to teleport a human raises all the ethical questions. Because the original has to be destroyed in the process of quantum teleportation. So if you zap Captain Kirk and zap him across the room, you’;ve now seen captain Kirk die, you’ve seen his atoms fall apart. But here’s this other captain kirk on the other side of the room with the same bad jokes, all the personality quirks as the original. So the impoostor says “No, I’m real, I have the memories, the personality, the quirks. I am captain Kirk. Well you just saw the original die, and you believe in a soul, that soul went to heaven or the other place. But that person is dead, so who is the imposter? Does the imposter have a soul? So that raises the question, are we nothing but information? Is the soul the essence of who we are, nothing but information? Well we don’t know the answer to that, all we’re saying is its physically possible to teleport an entiee human being across the room or onto mars, and it raises a valid question. What happened to the soul if the original copy died and somebody out there has all your memories. What does that mean? And the answer is we don’t know..
This year, Quantum Teleportation from space has been officially achieved by China. Chinese scientists achieved quantum teleportation from a station on the ground to a satellite in orbit, a distance of over 1400 kilometers. The scientists were successful in this task over 900 times. Quantum teleportation involves teleporting something called a state. A fundamental particle like a photon of light, can be described by something called a “state”. A state is a set of properties that include information about the way the particle is moving and behaving. The state or description of one partcile can be linked to another particle in a specal way. The state of one particle influences the state of another particle. This is called “Quantum Entanglement”. Consider 2 particles that are made to interact with each other so that their properties are now connected. These 2 entangled particiles are ind of like twins now. Each of their individual particles can only be measured ion 2 states. Technically the states are called “spin”. And particles can only exist as “spin up” or ‘spin down”,. Its easier to think of the states like binary. 1 or 0. Much like quantum computer Qbits. When we’re not looking. The particles exist in both states at the same time. And there’s only a probability of which one they’re going to be. This is called “superposition”. The state of a particle only gets confirmned as 1 or 0 if you measure it and look at it. When you observe the state of one particle, the other connected particle has to be in the exact opposite sstate. in other words, when we observe that one particle is in state one, the other has to be in state zero. Its called Quantum Entanglement, and it has some amazing implications. The distance between the particles doesn’t matter. You can move them a meter apart, or the distance of the universe apart, but they’ll still interact with each other and be in opposite states. This state by definition is called quantum teleportation, if there are 2 things exactly identifical they might only affect each other if they’re relatively close,. This is not the same for the very small world of quantum physics. Because quantum entangleement works at any distance isntantly, the actual informtaion transmitted between the 2 partticles travels faster than the speed of light. This has been known for many decades. In august of 2016, after 5 years of development, the chinese academyn of sciences launched the world’s first quantum satellite in august 2016.