DIAMONDOID: Like diamond; chemical structures or systems (especially nanomachines as envisioned by Eric K. Drexler) based on diamond derivatives or stiff carbon bonds.
We can make strong material like graphene, but we also make hardened material, even harder than diamond. Hyperdiamonds or Aggregated Diamond Nanorods are the hardest most dense and least compressible mayterial we know of. Diamonds are hard because of the molecular structure, each carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds with the carbon atoms around it, which forms the hardest possible crystal structure. Hyperdiamond is an even more wear resistent type of diamond. This material is made up of many tiny interlocked diamond crystals rather than one single structure. They can be made in a lab by applying extreme heat and pressure to graphite. Diamonds are frequently used for industrial jobs like grinding and polishing because they’re so tough. But hyperdiamonds can be even useful than regular diamonds because they’re even more resistant to the temperature and pressure changes that can wear diamond down over time
Carbon nanofibers or vapor grown carbon nanofibers are cylindric nanostructures with graphene layers arranged as stacked cones, cups or plates. We’ve figured out how to pull carbon nanofibers out of thin air. Carbon nanofibers, more precisely the production of carbon nanofiber, a material used in high end electronics like computers and smart phones. and can also be used to improve carbon composit materials in cars, airplanes, or spacecraft, where strong lightweigth material is a necessity. Normally the fabrication of this material is very expensive, prevented it from being used in common household aplications. Often cheaper materials such as plastics will suffice. But now scientists from geroge washington university have invented a low energy system that can be used to convert atmospheric carbon dioxide into valuable carbon nanofibers. It gets rid of useless carbon dioxzide from the atmosphere and makes a rare material. According to BBC news and laboratory tests, scientits put together a bath of molten salts and dropped some elctrodes in the baths. They then passed an electrical current through the salt and let it do its thing. Through a chemical reaction, black sooty residue began to form around the electrodes and the black stuff is carbon nanofibers. This system converts carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to this carbon residue at a rate of 10 grams per hour. And this is just a laboratory test, can you imagine what it could do once the system is scaled up for industrial use? The inventors want to scale it up to tap into a limitless supply of carbon dioxide, but perhaps one more lofty goal is to possibly help slow the global warming trend by pulling carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide as we all know is a potent greenhouse gas, and our burning of fossil fuels is showing no signs of halting. It could be used as a ressource for infdustrial scale carbon nanofiber cfactories. But some scientists aren’t convinced they can be scaled up to the point where they can make a difference in the global co2 level. But the technology would produce an endless supply of carbon nanofibers whioch are biodegradable and can replace plastic. It could transform industrila applications for the material driving doewn the price and revolutioonizing certain products and technologies.
NANOTUBE FILM (STRONGER THAN KEVLAR)
Scientists have made a film from carbon nanotubes that has properties stronger and stretchier than that of kevlar or carbon fiber.
A FILM STRONGER THAN KEVLAR
Scientists have been experimenting with carbon nanotubes to create a host of things—everything from smaller resistors to smart skin. Not only is carbon nanotube exceptionally strong, it also possesses excellent conductive properties and flexibility.
A new study published in Nano Letters by researchers at East China University revealed that they have been able to create a film from carbon nanotubes that is five times stronger than prior films. Not only is it stronger than previously fabricated films, the new material is also stronger than films made from Kevlar or carbon fiber.
The research is groundbreaking, considering the difficulties of maintaining the mechanical properties of individual nanotubes once converted into films.
What is different in the new material is that the nanotubes are densely packed to each other and oriented parallel to each others, giving the films stronger strength. To accomplish this, the researchers did not try to align the nanotubes by spraying or filtering like previous studies did before. but instead developed their own, entirely new method.
By using a rotating drum, they were able to wind the carbon nanotubes around before flattening and cooling them into a two-layer film. They then compress the nanotubes further by using rollers. By varying the rotation of the drum faster, the scientists were able to find that faster winding would allow the nanotubes to align better.
THE FUTURE IN FILM
While the process may seem oddly simple, the strength of the resulting material is nothing to scoff at. The films produced had an average of 9.6 gigapascals. In contrast, films produced by prior research had only reached 2 GPa, while that of Kevlar and carbon fiber is around 3.7 and 7 GPa, respectively. Beyond that, the film is four times as pliable and stretchable as carbon fiber.
The technique also results in pure carbon films as it does not require use of surfactants to produce allowing for simpler and more efficient production.